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哈冠群:中东人权状况失序的根源与出路

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新世纪以来,部分西方国家对中东地区实行的民主输出,把大中东地区推进了史无前例的危机漩涡。首先是伊拉克战争拉开了中东危机的序幕。这场以实现民主和平为名而发动的战争直接或间接夺走了至少60万伊拉克人的生命,约600万伊拉克人离开了家园。美国有足够强大的军事实力摧毁地区旧秩序,却无力塑造长期稳定的地区新秩序。萨达姆政权倒台后,各派势力拼凑的伊拉克联合政府被迫接受了美国的政治经济模式,却难以实现国内的长治久安,不得不承受民主移植带来的政治动荡与经济崩溃的恶果。紧接着“阿拉伯之春”把中东危机推向高潮。长期以来,美国始终在中东地区进行意识形态渗透。2010年底开始,北非和西亚阿拉伯国家爆发大规模反政府运动,而西方借机以推进民主、保护人权和反对独裁为名,通过官方外交、民间外交和军事干预等手段,积极介入,推波助澜。最终这场革命风暴导致中东地区的安全局势急剧恶化,地区经济严重衰退。尤其需要关注的是,中东地区数以百万计的少年儿童在整个学龄期都无缘走进教室,战争造成的混乱使一代青少年失去了接受正常教育的条件。

由此可见,部分西方国家为了自己霸权秩序和经济利益,置中东和平和中东各国人民的人权于不顾,导致中东生灵涂炭、流离失所,造成了人权灾难。于是我们不禁发问:未来的中东应向何处去?中东国家的人权与福祉如何得到保证?一方面,从冷战时期的阿拉伯民族主义与现代伊斯兰主义,再到后冷战时代的“阿拉伯之春”,这些席卷中东地区的政治与社会变革牵动着西方国家的神经,美国官方对中东事务的关注程度有增无减。历届美国政府皆把中东地区视作全球性战略的主要实践对象。不论是隔岸平衡战略,还是霸权改造政策,美国对中东战略之根源始终建立在称霸世界的国家利益上。美国唯有摒弃霸权主义的外交思维,尊重中东国家的合法权益,缓和域外势力的尖锐矛盾,中东地区的政治环境与经济秩序才有可能得到较大改善。另一方面,构建人类命运共同体理念及“一带一路”倡议顺应当代世界和平发展的时代潮流,不仅彰显了中华民族追求民族复兴的历史夙愿的远大抱负,还体现了世界各国人民谋求发展的共同愿望。中国正在致力于与中东国家携手并进,为动荡不定、渴望发展的中东地区带来新的希望,指出新的方向,同时从人类命运共同体理念出发,倡导人权与国际团结,促进世界人权事业发展。

参考文献:

1,李翠亭:《中东危机与美国民主输出的困境》,《江汉论坛》,2017.8

2,王林聪:《民主化还是美国化?》,《世界经济与政治》,2004.9

 

CGTN报道“人权与国际团结”边会:

(https://news.cgtn.com/news/2021-07-03/Chinese-experts-call-for-revival-of-human-rights-concept--11AIH7p8iIw/index.html 报道链接)

 

Chinese experts call for revival of

human rights' concept

Chinese experts called for a revival of the concept "human rights," saying the cause of "human rights" is becoming an excuse for hegemony, hampering international solidarity.

The calls were made Friday at a parallel event for the 47th Session of the United Nations Human Rights Council, which was held online in Xi'an, northwest China's Shaanxi Province, with the theme "Human Rights and International Solidarity."

"In many cases, international conflicts in areas such as economic competition, ideological and cultural differences are launched under the banner of human rights," said Professor He Zhipeng, executive director of Human Rights Research Centre at Jilin University.

Experts condemned hegemonic actions by some Western countries, disguised as so-called "human rights protection," hampering international efforts to actually improve human rights conditions.

"Hegemonism has already caused human rights disasters in the Middle East," said Ha Guanqun, a scholar from Northwest University of Political Science and Law.

"Only by abandoning hegemonic thinking and respecting the legitimate rights and interests of Middle Eastern countries can the human rights situation there be improved," the scholar said.

Zhu Ying, deputy dean of Institute for Human Rights, Southwest University of Political Science & Law, said the key is to "remold and revive the concept of 'human rights' in the world".

"China has made brilliant achievements in the cause of human rights in recent years, especially the national efforts to eradicate absolute poverty," said Zhu, citing China's practice as an example.

"It is the best testimony of enriching the connotation of 'human rights,'" Zhu said.

China announced at the beginning of this year that it has lifted 98.99 million poor rural residents out of poverty under the current poverty line, addressing their healthcare, education and housing problems. The achievement is considered a major part of the country's efforts to improve human rights conditions of its people.

Experts at the event said China's concept of human rights is the enrichment and development of international human rights discourse.

 

 

哈冠群,历史学博士,西北政法大学365体育app官网入口讲师,西北政法大学人权研究中心兼职研究人员,受聘“长安青年学术骨干”,美国福特海斯州立大学访问学者。在《世界近现代史研究》《国际论坛》《安徽史学》等期刊发表文章数篇,主持国家社科基金项目一项,参与国家社科基金项目与教育部人文社科项目各一项。主要研究方向为美国中东战略、库尔德问题与域外势力涉疆政策。

 

 

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